Home

Function of osteoclast

Osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone resorption, are rare cells with only 2-3 cells seen per 1 mm3 of bone. However, the loss of function in osteoclasts, problems with their differentiation and decrease in their number lead to bone osteosclerosis/osteopetrosis. On the other hand, an increase in their number or function induces bone. Osteoclasts make and secrete digestive enzymes that break up or dissolve the bone tissue. Osteoclasts then take up or 'absorb' the bone debris and further break it down inside the cell Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption. They have developed an efficient machinery for dissolving crystalline hydroxyapatite and degrading organic bone matrix rich in collagen fibers An osteoclast (from Ancient Greek ὀστέον (osteon) 'bone', and κλαστός (clastos) 'broken') is a type of bone cell that breaks down bone tissue.This function is critical in the maintenance, repair, and remodelling of bones of the vertebral skeleton.The osteoclast disassembles and digests the composite of hydrated protein and mineral at a molecular level by secreting acid and a.

Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that resorb bone and contribute to bone remodeling. Diseases such as osteoporosis and osteolytic bone metastasis occur when osteoclast-mediated bone resorption takes place in the absence of concurrent bone synthesis. Considerable effort has been placed on identifying molecules that regulate the bone. The functional identity of the osteoclast lies in the ability to resorb bone, i.e. dissolving both the inorganic and organic components of the matrix, by secreting protons and collagenolytic enzymes ( 5, 12), which is an energy-demanding process. The osteoclast evidently contains abundant mitochondria and is assumed to undergo metabolic adaptation during the course of differentiation so as to be able to meet the increased bioenergetics demand

Differentiation and function of osteoclast

¿Qué es la resorción ósea? - Curiosoando

Osteoclast: Definition, Function & Formation - Video

Osteoclast resorptive function is absolutely necessary for normal bone growth, i.e., for bone modeling, 6 and for the renewing of bone mass in adult vertebrates Many types of cells and factors are involved in the process of bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast are the two main cells participating in those progresses (Matsuo and Irie, 2008). Osteoclasts are responsible for aged bone resorption and osteoblasts are responsible for new bone formation (Matsuoka et al., 2014) Hypophosphatemia may suppress osteoclast differentiation/function, leading to skeletal abnormalities. Introduction: Skeletal abnormalities seen in hypophosphatemic disorders indicate a critical role of phosphate (Pi) in skeletogenesis. However, the role of osteoclasts in the pathogenesis of the disturbed skeletogenesis is unclear Osteoblasts are the cells that are involved in the bone formation and the mineralization of bones. Osteoclasts are the cells that are involved in the breakdown and resorption of bones. Therefore, the main difference between osteoblast and osteoclast is the function of each type of bone cell in bone remodeling

The second film in the bone biology series describes the role and functions of the cells responsible for breaking down bone tissue (osteoclasts) and building.. Bone lining cells functions are not completely understood, but it has been shown that these cells prevent the direct interaction between osteoclasts and bone matrix, when bone resorption should not occur, and also participate in osteoclast differentiation, producing osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B. Osteoclasts (OCLs) are key players in controlling bone remodeling. Modifications in their differentiation or bone resorbing activity are associated with a number of pathologies ranging from osteopetrosis to osteoporosis, chronic inflammation and cancer, that are all characterized by immunological alterations

To evaluate the function of osteoclasts, F‐actin ring staining and the in vitro bone resorption assay were investigated. For F‐actin ring staining, osteoclast differentiation was induced as described above for 6‐8 days, and then fixed with 4% formaldehyde and permeabilized with 0.2% Triton X‐100 The cells of the osteoblast lineage (osteoblasts, osteocytes, and bone lining cells) have multiple stage-specific functions in the skeleton, including formation of the bone matrix. They arise from pluripotent mesenchymal progenitors, which can also give rise to adipocytes and chondrocytes The critical role of Rac1 in osteoclast function is emphasized by the fact that in spite of constitutive activation of Rac2-GTPase in the Nf1+/−; Rac1−/− osteoclasts, the Nf1+/− gain-of-function phenotype is corrected by genetic deletion of Rac1. These findings are significant as they reveal that the Rac GTPases contribute non-redundant. Osteoclast-non-autonomous forms represent those in which the molecular defect is present in cells that support osteoclast precursor differentiation or function of the mature resorptive cell. Osteocytes are cells that form the bones themselves, osteoblasts are responsible for the formation of new osteocytes, whereas osteoclasts are responsible for the resorption of old bone matter. Thus, between them, the three types of bone cells regulate the formation, sustenance, and decay of bones

This fourth film in our bone biology series focuses on the link between the protein RANK ligand and how it signals the process of bone tissue breakdown Excessive osteoclast activity is a major characteristic of pathogenic bone loss in inflammatory bone diseases including periodontitis. However, beyond the knowledge that osteoclasts are differentiated from the monocyte/macrophage lineage and share common ancestry with macrophages and DC, the nature and function of osteoclast precursors are not. Therefore, cytokines that produced by immune cells and regulate adaptive response may also affect osteoclast function through the common receptors, signaling pathway, and transcription factors. This hypothesis is supported by the evidences learned from experimental animal models and human observations with autoimmune diseases[ 31 - 37 ]

In addition to M-CSF and RANKL, the only factors Osteoclast origin, formation and function required for basal osteoclastogenesis, several other cytokines also play an important role in osteoclast biology. Key among It is now clear that osteoclasts derive from cells of the mono- these are stromal- and/or T-cell derived TNF and interleukin (IL)-1. lysosomal function regulation in osteoclasts, we will first present the main lysosomal proteins implicated in the resorptive activity of the osteoclast. Lysosomal Proteins and Osteoclast Function The lysosomal proteins required for osteoclast resorptive function can be subdivided into 2 classes (see Tables 1 and 2)

The cell biology of osteoclast function Journal of Cell

  1. Osteoclast: A cell that nibbles at and breaks down bone and is responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclasts are large multinucleate cells (cells with more than one nucleus) that differentiate from another type of cell called a macrophage. In normal bone, bone formation and bone resorption are closely coupled processes involved in the normal.
  2. osteoclast differentiation is shown in Figure 1. After differentiation, osteoclasts must become polarized before beginning resorptive activity. The actin cytoskeletal network is important in osteoclast function. The osteoclast actin ring, also called the sealing zone, is an attachment structure required for bone resorption. Th
  3. Normal osteoclasts resorb bone by secretion of acid and proteases. Recent studies of patients with loss of function mutations affecting either of these processes have indicated a divergence in osteoclastic phenotypes. These difference in osteoclast phenotypes may directly or indirectly have secondary effects on bone remodeling, a process which is of importance for the pathogenesis of both.
  4. The function of the calcium channel Orai1 in osteoclast development. Lisa J Robinson Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Laboratory Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA
  5. The endocannabinoid system has recently been shown to play a role in the regulation of bone metabolism. The type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2) has been reported to regulate bone mass, but conflicting results have been reported with regard to its effects on bone resorption and osteoclast function

Osteoblast-Osteoclast activity. 1. Dr Gauri Kapila MDS Student Department of Periodontology and Oral Implantology. 2. Portion of maxilla and mandible that forms, supports & protects the teeth Parts - alveolar bone proper, compact bone, cancellous bone FUNCTIONS Support to teeth Attachment to muscles Framework for bone marrow Reservoir of ions interleukin-1b stimulated osteoclast-like cell formation in 16. Takahashi N, Yamana H, Yoshiki S, Roodman GD, Mundy long-term human marrow cultures. J Interferon Res 10:541- GR, Jones SJ, Boyde A Suda T 1988 Osteoclast like cell 547. formation and its regulation by osteotropic hormones in mouse 30 Regulation of osteoclast structure and function by FAK family kinases Brianne J. Ray,* Keena Thomas,* Cynthia S. Huang,† Michael F. Gutknecht,* Edward A. Botchwey,† and Amy H. Bouton*,1 *Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA; and †The Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering at Georgia Tech and.

By comparison, there is a paucity of data on the roles of individual HDACs in osteoclast formation and function. In this study, we investigated the gene expression patterns and the effects of suppressing individual class II ( Hdac4, 5, 6, 9, and 10) and class IV ( Hdac11) HDACs during osteoclast differentiation Heightened activity of osteoclast is considered to be the culprit in breaking the balance during bone remodeling in pathological conditions, such as osteoporosis. As a foe of skeletal health, many antiosteoporosis therapies aim to inhibit osteoclastogenesis. However, bone remodeling is a dynamic process that requires the subtle coordination of osteoclasts and osteoblasts Consistent with impaired function of osteoclasts in RAGE −/− mice, bone volume (over the total volume, or the total bone volume) was increased in femur from these animals (Fig. 3, B-C and E). Based on these observations, we propose that RAGE contributes to osteoclast function in vivo RANKL may also bind to osteoprotegerin, a protein secreted mainly by cells of the osteoblast lineage which is a potent inhibitor of osteoclast formation by preventing binding of RANKL to RANK. RANKL also has a function in the immune system, where it is expressed by T helper cells and is thought to be involved in dendritic cell maturation

Osteoclast - Wikipedi

Regulation of osteoclast structure and function by FAK

role of osteoclast differentiation and function in

The human skeleton is continuously remodeling during growth and in response to mechanical stress and hormonal regulation. The maintenance of normal bone mass during adult life depends on a precise balance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone destruction, implicating tight coupling between these two cellular activities. In various skeletal diseases associated with bone loss. Thus, inhibition of osteoclast function reduces the rate of osteoblast turnover and may consequently reduce the formation of niche-osteoblasts. Our findings indicate an important role for osteoclasts in the hematopoietic niche and suggest that their manipulation can be exploited to selectively augment the number/function of niche-type. osteoclast-activation factor RANKL converted many N osteoclasts to R, suggesting a novel point of action in RANKL-mediated control of mature osteoclast function. Furthermore, we showed that Th17 cells, a subset of RANKL-expressing CD4 + T cells, could induce rapid N-to-R conversion of mature osteoclasts via cell-cell con-tact Although LRF overexpression reportedly led to prolonged osteoclast survival in a gain-of-function study , these results in a loss-of-function study suggest that LRF expression at the late stage of osteoclastogenesis is not required for the survival of osteoclast lineage cells, but is instead essential for bone resorption activity

RANKL, the essential cue for osteoclast differentiation, is the membrane-bound factor expressed by osteoclastogenesis-supporting cells such as osteoblasts and osteocytes. In vivo evidence indicates that RANKL functions as the indispensable and irreplaceable in the program of osteoclast differentiation. The reason why RANKL plays a critical role in osteoclastogenesis is discussed from the. Given the required function for csf1ra in osteoclast formation as well as microglia distribution (Oosterhof et al., 2018), we hypothesized that there would be a specific and evolutionary unique gain of cis-regulatory control in csf1ra, shared among all teleost fishes, but unique from other vertebrates (Fig. 5A) of osteoclast function and enhanced bone loss, which is associated with the onset and progression of osteoporosis. In this review, we briefly consolidate the current state-of-the-art technology regarding the role of autophagy in osteoclast function in both physiologic and pathologic conditions to have a more general view on this issue In Vivo Multicolor Imaging with Fluorescent Probes Revealed the Dynamics and Function of Osteoclast Proton Pumps Masafumi Minoshima,† Junichi Kikuta,‡,§ Yuta Omori,† Shigeto Seno,∥ Riko Suehara,‡ Hiroki Maeda,† Hideo Matsuda,∥ Masaru Ishii,‡,§ and Kazuya Kikuchi*,†,§ †Department of Material and Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka. Cudratrixanthone U (CTU) is a prenylated xanthone compound isolated from Maclura tricuspidata Bureau (Moraceae). Prenylated xanthones have been reported to exhibit a variety of biological activities. However, the effects of prenylated xanthone on osteoclast differentiation and function are still unclear. Excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts is considered a major cause of diseases such as.

Video: What are Osteoclasts? - News Medica

Osteoclast cell Britannic

balanced-integrated function of osteocyte signaling, osteoblast bone formation, and osteoclast bone resorption. In this review, the autocrine and paracrine factors that control the rate of bone synthesis and resorption as they attribute to osteogenic cell differentiation, localization, and function are reviewed The T-cell-derived cytokine IL-4 has been reported to affect osteoblasts and osteoclasts. 6,8,15-19,22,35 Recently, it has been shown that IL-4-induced suppression of osteoclast development is dependent on STAT6 expression. 5,7 To fully delineate the mechanism by which IL-4 regulates osteoclast development and function, we used 3 different. HCO 3 /Cl anion exchanger SLC4A2 is required for proper osteoclast differentiation and function Jing Wua,1, Laurie H. Glimchera,b,2, and Antonios O. Aliprantisa,b,1,2 aDepartment of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Harvard School of Public Health, 651 Huntington Ave, FXB 205, Boston, MA 02115; and bDepartment of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Inhibition of ACLY leads to suppression of osteoclast differentiation and function via regulation of histone acetylation. Qian Guo Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Biological Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China Background/Purpose: Osteoclasts (OC) are bone-resorbing, multinuclear cells that originate from myeloid progenitor cells through repetitive cycles of cell-cell fusion. Dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DCSTAMP) is a transmembrane protein essential for cell-cell fusion and formation of fully functional OC although the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Utilizing RAW cell.

Subsequently, preosteoclasts fuse and differentiate into functional mature multinucleated osteoclasts. 8 The cytokine M-CSF, a prerequisite for the induction of osteoclast, promotes the proliferation and survival of preosteoclasts and induces the binding of RANKL with its receptor RANK on the cell membrane. 9 RANKL activates a variety of. copies of this gene lead to impairment of osteoclast function, with increased bone density, increased skeletal mass, and early mortality. Methods: We isolated fibroblasts from a patient with the compound heterozygous TCIRG1 mutations c.1549G>A (p.517D>N) and c.2236C>T (p.746Q>X), and reprogrammed them into iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells. The function of osteoclasts derived from these. The osteoclast has special calcitonin receptors, which, if activated, can inhibit formation and function. The calcitonin can inhibit escaped phenomenon in bone resorption, can lift up the deceased bone resorption rate again and relief bone ache of osteoporosis diseases [ 6 - 8 ] Osteocyte, a cell that lies within the substance of fully formed bone. It occupies a small chamber called a lacuna, which is contained in the calcified matrix of bone. Osteocytes derive from osteoblasts, or bone-forming cells, and are essentially osteoblasts surrounded by the products they secreted. Cytoplasmic processes of the osteocyte extend. However, their functions in osteoclast differentiation are not clearly known. Therefore, we conducted a series of experiments to characterize a protein from this family, Cpeb4, using cell cultures.

Enhanced dual function of osteoclast precursors following

Figure 3 The differentiation of RAW264.7 cells to osteoclast was enhanced when culturing with KPC-exosome, compared with MPDC-exosomes. ( A-D) Culture in conditioned medium from KPC-exo 10ug/mL promoted the osteoclast differentiation, where MPDC-exosomes did not work and RANKL as positive control, scale bar, 200 μm Proper regulation of osteoclast (OCL) function is critical for normal bone homeostasis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and its regulation have been shown to have direct effects on OCL differentiation and activity. One of the major modulators of BMP signaling in the extracellular space is the secreted protein twisted gastrulation. Abnormal osteoclast function is closely related to various diseases. Furthermore, osteoclasts are indispensable in forming bone marrow to produce blood cells, and the absence of osteoclasts causes osteopetrosis, resulting in extramedullary hematopoiesis. Although the physiological roles of osteoclasts are well described, the mechanisms of their. Regulation of osteoclast function. Ichiro Nakamura Department of Rheumatology, Yugawara Kosei-Nenkin Hospital, 438 Miyakami, Yugawara, Ashigara-shimo, Kanagawa 259-0396, Japan Correspondence ichiclast@yugawara-hosp.co osteoclast function and/or formation, and again this is most likely through an indirect mechanism (Kimble et al. 1996). In considering how these hor-mones influence osteoclast function, the concept of their indirect actions is paramount, and the evidence is that local cytokines and growth fac-tors, in many cases regulated by o

Hormonal Regulation of Osteoclast Function 1. Osteoclasts. Modulation of osteoclast differentiation. Suda T, Takahashi N, Martin TJ: 1995. Modulation of osteoclast... 2. Regulation of osteoclast activity. Role of osteoblasts in hormonal control of bone resorption—a hypothesis. Effect of... 3.. Bone is a dynamic tissue that continuously undergoes coupled resorption and formation, mediated by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. This process, called bone remodeling, is a prerequisite for normal skeletal homeostasis throughout life also affect osteoclast function through the common receptors, signaling pathway, and transcription fac-tors. This hypothesis is supported by the evidences learned from experimental animal models and human observations with autoimmune diseases[31-37] The reason for this apparent 'bone resistance' is unclear but may reflect abnormal osteoclast function. To address this problem, we developed an in vitro model of osteoclast bone resorption, in which we differentiated the mouse cell line RAW264.7, into functional osteoclasts using RANKL

Osteoclast function and its control - Wile

Concerning the negative roles of miRNAs in osteoclast survival, miR-21 , miR-9 , miR-142-3p , and miR-186 have been shown to inhibit osteoclast survival by enhancing osteoclast apoptosis. In the physiological state, these miRNAs coincide with the miRNAs that facilitate osteoclast function and survival, thus modulating osteoclast behavior and. Moreover, SLP-76 regulates osteoclast function in vivo. Mice lacking hematopoietic expression of SLP-76 or SLP-76 in combination with BLNK, fail to induce osteoclastic bone resorption following PTH injections compared to wild-type or those lacking BLNK alone, indicating that SLP- 76 is the dominant adaptor in vivo

AP1 IN BONE DEVELOPMENT. The growth and the maintenance of the skeleton depends on the coordinated function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the two principal cell types of bone tissue. 3, 4 Osteoblasts, which derive from mesenchymal progenitors, produce the extracellular matrix of the bone that later undergoes mineralisation. In contrast, osteoclasts belong to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Background and objective: Excessive osteoclast activity is a major characteristic of pathogenic bone loss in inflammatory bone diseases including periodontitis. However, beyond the knowledge that osteoclasts are differentiated from the monocyte/macrophage lineage and share common ancestry with macrophages and DC, the nature and function of. Defects in osteoclast function can affect osteoblast activity ; however, bone formation as assessed by serum osteocalcin (OCN), mineral apposition rate (MAR), or bone formation rate (BFR) did not reveal any difference between DKO mice and control mice (Fig. 6, D to F), confirming that reduced bone resorption, rather than changes in bone.

Over the past two decades, several novel approaches have been developed and adopted to investigate osteoclast biology. In the present review, we would like to update recent progress in the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of osteoclast activation and function To determine the function of Mincle during osteoclast formation and activity, WT and Mincle-deficient preosteoclasts were stimulated with necrotic osteocytes. In line with our previous findings, necrotic osteocytes strongly induced osteoclastogenesis ( Figure 2, C and D )

“Identification of the commander cell in the bone

Osteoclast - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) is a TNF ligand superfamily member that is essential for the formation, activation, and function of osteoclasts. RANKL functions via its cognate receptor RANK, and it is inhibited by the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG). In skeletal metastases, the ratio of RANKL to OPG is upregulated, which leads to increased osteoclast. An osteoclast is a large cell that is characterized by multiple nuclei and a cytoplasm with a homogeneous, foamy appearance. This appearance is due to a high concentration of vesicles and vacuoles. At a site of active bone resorption, the osteoclast forms a specialized cell membrane, the ruffled border, which touches the surface of the bone tissue

Basic Aspects of Osteoclast Differentiation and Function

Read Lanthanum Chloride Attenuates Osteoclast Formation and Function Via the Downregulation of Rankl‐Induced Nf‐κb and Nfatc1 Activities, Journal of Cellular Physiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips The kindlin3 C-terminal tail is composed of three FERM (integrin-binding) domains, F1, F2, and F3 and one PH (membrane lipid-binding) domain that interrupts the F2 domain. The goal of this work is to determine the roles of kindlin3 and its domains in affecting osteoclast differentiation and function Finally, osteoclast survival is dependent on the activity of Ras GTPases. The correct function of almost all these GTPases is absolutely dependent on post-translational prenylation, which enables them to localize to specific target membranes

Role of RANKL and RANK in bone loss and arthritis | AnnalsCancers | Free Full-Text | The Osteoclast in BoneWhat Is Calcitonin? | From the Society for EndocrinologyBone Growth Stimulation is Wearable Therapy After Spinal

osteoclast 1. (Surgery) a surgical instrument for fracturing bone 2. (Physiology) a large multinuclear cell formed in bone marrow that is associated with the normal absorption of bon Excessive bone resorption conducted by osteoclasts is considered as the main cause of osteoclast-related bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Therefore, the suppression of excessive osteoclast formation and function is one of the strategies to treat osteoclast-related bone diseases The formation of an F-actin ring is essential for osteoclast function and is a quantifiable measure of osteoclast activity. Treatment of human osteoclasts with 100 nM AEA resulted in an increase in the number of F-actin rings to 168 ± 22% of control ( Figure 5A ) and resorption pit area to 390 ± 100% of control ( Figure 5B. Calcitonin Regulation of Osteoclast Integrin Functions Calcitonin (CT) is the most potent and rapidly acting known inhibitor of bone resorption that targets the osteoclast (OC) directly. CT was the first therapeutic agent used to inhibit excessive bone resorption in osteoporosis and other conditions Recessive loss-of-function mutations in both copies of this gene lead to impairment of osteoclast function, with increased bone density, increased skeletal mass, and early mortality.Methods:We isolated fibroblasts from a patient with the compound heterozygous TCIRG1 mutations c.1549G>A (p.517D>N) and c.2236C>T (p.746Q>X), and reprogrammed them. Here, we present evidence for a role of RAGE in osteoclast maturation and function, which has consequences for bone remodeling. Mice lacking RAGE had increased bone mass and bone mineral density and decreased bone resorptive activity in vivo. In vitro-differentiated RAGE-deficient osteoclasts exhibited disrupted actin ring and sealing zone.

  • فنيات تعديل السلوك.
  • إعادة التأهيل بالفرنسية.
  • علاج الحزام الناري بزيت الزيتون والثوم.
  • وصفات لتسمين الكلاب.
  • سرير الأطفال.
  • نقص المناعة الوراثي.
  • موقع غابات الفرنلق.
  • قناة MTV arabia اختفت.
  • أفكار فيديوهات عيد ميلاد.
  • كيف انزل خلفيات بوربوينت.
  • هل حبوب زنتاك تسبب الاجهاض.
  • خلفيات ps4.
  • الإنقاذ المائي.
  • تحميل أغنية علي بن محمد طاش mp3.
  • أنواع الأرضيات الخرسانية.
  • مسلسل دريم هاي.
  • باربي دريم هاوس للبيع.
  • الزمالة المصرية للوافدين.
  • فحص الشرخ.
  • كود الرصيد المفتوح.
  • اسعار الغسالات الاتوماتيك توشيبا.
  • عمل التريكو.
  • الأرقام الحسابية في القرآن.
  • معلومات صحية للمرأة.
  • قصة فيلم War Dogs.
  • الكتابة اون لاين.
  • سعر هواوي ميت 8.
  • خلية عصبية_فطحل.
  • World Press Photo 2020 Montréal.
  • اغنية هكونا متاتا الاصلية.
  • أهم الاماكن في رومانيا.
  • كرتون التنين الصغير الحلقة 1.
  • موقع Youku.
  • تعريف قواعد البيانات.
  • دانيال 8.
  • جمع كلمة حصان.
  • ما هو حجر الملاكيت.
  • لورانس العرب ويكيبيديا.
  • راس البر 2018.
  • تويوتا قديم للبيع.
  • هوندا اكورد 2018 هايبرد.